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5% or more of green twigs infested with 1 or more scales. On magnolia trees, false The Soft Scale Insects of Florida (Homoptera: Coccidea) in Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas Vol. 2012. First stage (instar) nymphs, called crawlers (Fig. A. Jackman. You're the proud owner of the camellia's most common pest – the tea scale. Soil-applied systemic insecticide products, such as those containing imidacloprid (e.g. Heavy infestations of the scale cause yellowing, loss of foliage, and poor fruit set 2. Even after the insects are killed, many of the scales and the sooty mold will remain on the plants and continue to disfigure them. Co., Houston, TX. (June 2006). Since 2010, we have been monitoring Japanese maple scale populations to determine the life cycle of this scale insect in Maryland. 1974. Nymphs: The first instars are pink in color and have functional legs. Severe infestations may result in leaf discoloration, shoot or branch dieback and occasionally death of the host plant. Although extensively distributed world-wide, the fig wax scale, Ceroplastes rusci (Linnaeus), was first discovered in Florida at several nursery and stock dealers in 1994 and 1995. Argov Y, Podoler H, Bar-Shalom O and Rosen D. 1987. Florida wax scales have been reported infesting a wide range of host plants, including shrubs, trees and several herbaceous plant species. Those scales that settle on the leaves often align themselves along the leaf midrib (Drees et al. Sooty mold on holly leaves. Beginning in late April and again in mid-August, examine leaves on infested plants weekly or bi-weekly for newly settled nymphs that appear small, white and star-like as they begin to exude their wax coating. Worldwide: Africa, Asia, Australia, Central America, the Caribbean, Mediterranean region, Pacific Islands, and South America. Tea Scale Scale Insects Damage caused by scale insects is usually serious, but not deadly to the camellia plant. 2006. 2006a). Treatment options include use of soil-applied systemic insecticides and/or foliar sprays with label directions for control of scale insects or soft scale on ornamental landscape plants (See Applying Systemic Soil and Foliar Spray Insecticides to Control Florida Wax Scale on Hollies). There are three instars (Drees et al. Honeydew also attracts other insects including bees, wasps, hornets and ants (Hymenoptera). This insect is widely distributed from Maryland to Florida including the Carribean archipelago, and from Missouri to California. Older nymphs can move around within the same plant to search for new flushes of growth on which to feed. Florida wax scales along leaf veins. 1974. Males are unknown in this species. Alternative shrubs to hollies in eastern Texas include junipers (except “Blue Point”), Ligustrum, privet, boxwood, pittosporium, bottle brush, sea grapes, oleander, wax myrtle (regular and dwarf). We appreciate Chris Fox for providing suggestions of non-host ornamental plant alternatives to hollies. 2). 1987). Three parasitoids are known to attack Florida wax scales in some parts of the United States. There are two main groups of tree scale—soft and armored (hard). Ben-Dov, Y. Crawler (pink instar - second from right) and settled nymphs of the Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock. Prune off and destroy any infested plant parts. Florida wax scales can also overwinter as newly mature females (Drees et al. After settling, nymphs insert their thread-like mouthparts into the plant and begin to secrete wax in tufts around the body that give them a star-like appearance. Phytoparasitica 15: 277-287. 2006). Sanitation and pruning will reduce initial pest density and opens the canopy for improving spray coverage. In 2013, we added Indian wax scale, white prunicola scale and juniper scale to the monitoring list to better determine crawler periods. The Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, is one of the most commonly encountered soft scales throughout the southern United States, where it is a serious pest of citrus and several ornamental plants, like holly. Texas Cooperative Extension, The Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 6 pp. Unlike the hard scales, Florida wax scale nymphs will often move from one location to another. Figure 4. Texas Cooperative Extension, The Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. Plant death is also possible. photo credit: R. Robert Found mostly on shrubs in the North as opposed to tree infestations in the South, Indian wax scale looks like someone stuck their white chewing gum in the crouch of the plant’s stems. Insecticidal soap, made from potassium salt of fatty acids, works by penetrating and destroying the outer shell or membrane of the insect causing it to dehydrate and die. Use carbaryl (Sevin) three times, at two-week intervals, starting in mid-April to control the baby scale as they emerge from under the adults. Heavy infestations can discolor leaves, cause premature leaf drop, and branch dieback. Another New Scale in Florida Catharine Mannion University of Florida, IFAS Tropical Research and Education Center Greg Hodges Division of Plant Industry 2008 – Reported from Monroe County on croton • Continues to spread and ISM555 provided good control of crapemyrtle bark scale and Madeira mealybug, while SP3014 provided good control of Madeira mealybug, in single trials. Foliar treatments are best applied after the crawler stage hatches from eggs and begins to settle on new foliage. When removing individual adult female scales from leaves at certain times of the year, hundreds of eggs will pour out of their body cavities (Fig. However, if the shell is completely removed from the leaf surface, as illustrated in this slide, or a dried mass is found beneath the cover, the scale is probably dead. Hiding under the "scale" covering (sometimes hard; sometimes fuzzy), these insects sit in one spot and suck plant juices—weakening or even killing the plant. (April 2009). Fig wax scale feeds by inserting its stylet into host leaves, shoots, and fruit 2. A Systematic Catalogue of the Soft Scale Insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) of the World. Learn to identify the insects and the … Regulatory Hort. 51. Web Site Maintenance: Neal Lee, Soil, Water, and Forage Testing Laboratory, Texas Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Florida Wax Scales: A Major Pest of Hollies and Other Landscape Shrubs and Trees, Applying Systemic Soil and Foliar Spray Insecticides to Control Florida Wax Scale on Hollies, Florida Wax Scales – Biology and Management, “Near-organic” and “Inorganic” Insecticides, Equal Opportunity for Educational Programs Statement. There are many scale insect species that infest ornamental landscape plants. Some scales may remain on the plant, dead, after being treated with an insecticide. However, none resemble the shape and size of this group of soft scale insect species in shape or size. Florida wax scale infestations could also trigger additional treatments, especially the use of systemic insecticides and foliar sprays (1). Chemical control. 2000). The second and third instars secrete a wax covering around them, giving them a star-like appearance. There are many scale insect species that infest ornamental landscape plants. Gulf Publ. Each generation lasts about three to four months. In recent years, infestations in the eastern half of Texas have become particularly noticeable. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. However, some of the scales colonize the underside of leaves, on twigs and branches, where they are more protected. (Homoptera: Coccidae). Florida Wax Scales – Biology and Management (PowerPoint presentation converted to PDF), Bastiaan M. Drees, Professor, Extension Entomologist, Texas AgriLife Extension, James Reinert, Professor of Entomology, Faculty and Regents Fellow, Texas AgriLife Research, Michael Williams, Chair, Department of Entomology/Plant Pathology, Auburn University. Florida wax scale is thought to have originated from the northern Neotropical region and now occurs throughout the world, including, but not restricted to, the following countries: Africa: Algeria, Egypt, Kenya, Libya, Madagascar, Madeira, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Asia: Bonin Islands, Brunei, China, Cyprus, India, Iran, Israel, Japan (including the Ryukyu Islands), Korea, Lebanon, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Syria, Taiwan, Turkey, and the more southern member countries of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Australasia and Pacific Islands: Australia, Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands, New Zealand, Central America and Caribbean: Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, West Indies, Europe: France (including Corsica), Greece, Italy (including Sicily), Malta, Spain, South America: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Venezuela. Consider junipers, ligustrum, privet, wax myrtle, or boxwood as alternative plants. Florida wax scale (Ceroplases floridensis) are small brownish-purple insects that are covered with a dirty-white waxy covering. Agric. This location makes the scales easier to reach with foliar insecticide sprays. A simple way to ensure that the treatment worked is to squish a scale and see if it is still juicy (= alive) or if it is dry and dead. 359 pp. Florida wax scales: Control measures in Texas for hollies. and infrequently found on other host plants. Native to Africa. 2006a). Underneath the wax cap, the body of the scale is red. Hamon AB, Williams ML. Each female has a reddish body that is coated with a thick layer of pinkish-white wax. Several foliar sprays applied in 7 to 10 day intervals, or as directed on the product’s label, may be necessary to provide protection of new foliage through the period of egg hatch, particularly when using insecticide products with little or no residual activity such as insecticidal soap or horticultural oil. Fla. Dept. Some types of soft scales include lec… They overwinter predominantly as newly mature females. Indian Wax Scale on the stem of cherry laurel. On holly, Florida wax scales are easily spotted because most of them colonize the upper leaf surface. Cir. Many other species of w… Flora and Fauna Handbook No. 2000). Cottony cushion scale is frequently found on pittosporum, citrus and nandina, whereas Florida wax scale is common on crape myrtle, gardenia, … Produce a sugary liquid called honeydew 2. Underneath the wax cap, the body of the scale is red. Wax scale females feed and develop through three immature stages (first, second and third instars) before becoming adults, producing eggs and dying. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. This location makes the scales vulnerable to heavy rain and other environmental factors that reduce their ability to survive and are more easily reached with foliar insecticide sprays. 3 Avoid using regular house soap. Established host plants. A Field Guide to Common Texas Insects. In Florida, this species has been recorded from many species of holly, elm, crape myrtles, oaks, loblolly pine, deodar cedar, citrus and other hardwoods and softwoods. gloomy scale, generally mediocre to excellent control of false oleander scale and Fletcher scale, and poor control of armored scale. Credits: Lyle Buss, University of Florida Biology and Behavior Life cycles of the various scale species differ somewhat, but a generalized life cycle is as follows. Control is difficult on heavily infested plants, in part, because proper timing and thorough coverage using insecticide treatments are needed to achieve success. Shaped like rounded bumps 4. It has been a pest of Ixoraspp. Scale insects and mealybugs on ornamental plants. Eggs (Fig. Drees BM, Reinert JA,Williams ML. Florida wax scales are easily spotted on holly because most of them are found on top of the leaves. Adult Florida wax scales, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock. 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