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Two methods are used to measure Young's modulus of the bar in both uniform and non-uniform bending. University. x� 7 0 obj Thus, m = 6.5. The converted values are listed in the table above. For this reason wavelength is often expressed using the unit nanometer, where 1 meter is equivalent to 109 nanometers. The reference wire and test wire made of the selected material are hung from the ceiling. A mirror was used to direct the pinhole beam horizontally across the room. As discussed in the previous part of this lesson, it was important that the two sources of light that form the pattern be coherent. Academic year. The values found were 0.57±0.02 for Poisson’s Ratio and 5±2GPa for Young’s modulus. Part 1: To investigate the relationship between... View more. The slide with its slits is most commonly purchased from a manufacturer who provides a measured value for the slit separation distance - the d value in Young's equation. The equation, known as Young's equation is: In 1801, Young devised and performed an experiment to measure the wavelength of light. c����J��B���ߒI�S{�;9��Z��K�x�V�-���$����K���5W٤H���GA�~r�jl��+���6m﷊����݈�n'�m㚏�'�xK�VC��k��G#�����?���Y�;1��!�&���,�=� The perpendicular distance from the midpoint between the slits to the screen is 7.65 m. The distance between the two third-order antinodes on opposite sides of the pattern is 32.9 cm. We use cookies to provide you with a great experience and to help our website run effectively. The slotted masses can be used to vary the force acting on the test wire. Pin and Microscope arrangement, Scale ,Vernier calipers, Screw gauge, Weight hanger, Material bar or rod. 1 The virtual physical laboratory is a suite of over … Poisons ratio (σ) 3. In solid mechanics, Young’s modulus is defines as the ratio of the longitudinal stress over … The slide with its slits is most commonly purchased from a manufacturer who provides a measured value for the slit separation distance - the d value in Young's equation. As is evident here, the wavelength of visible light is rather small. 3. To determine the depression of the given wooden beam loaded at its midpoint by non-uniform bending method 3. experimental method and to find its Young’s modulus SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES 1. /Length 8 They are Pin and Microscope method and Optic lever method. If doing so, one might want to pick a unit that one of the data values already has so that there is one less conversion. stream 2. ( Note that there are five spacings between the central anti-node and the fifth anti-node. An interference pattern is produced when light is incident upon two slits that are 50.0 micrometers apart. The distance measured between the central bright band and the fourth bright band is 8.21 cm. In solid mechanics, Young’s modulus is defines as the ratio of the longitudinal stress over longitudinal strain, in the range of elasticity the Hook’s law holds (stress is directly proportional to strain). The determination of the wavelength demands that the above values for d, y, L and m be substituted into Young's equation. %PDF-1.4 Before substituting these measured values into the above equation, it is important to give some thought to the treatment of units. �\'^/��*���[j���? The reference wire supports a vernier scale, which will measure the extension of the test wire. Where, Young’s modulus is named after Thomas Young,19th century,British scientist. ( Note that a the first-order minimum is a point of minimum brightness or a nodal position. The difficulty confronting Young was that the usual light sources of the day (candles, lanterns, etc.) It is the ratio of tensile stress to tensile strain. helpful 120 13. All the results for the correct constitution have been summarised in Table IX. Our Objective. c. The fourth nodal line on an interference pattern is 8.4 cm from the first antinodal line when the screen is placed 235 cm from the slits. The previous section of Lesson 3 discussed Thomas Young's effort to derive an equation relating the wavelength of a light source to reliably measured distances associated with a two-point source light interference pattern. Please sign in or register to post comments. Each frame has a torsion head at the upper side and a hook at the lower side. ( Note that there are three spacings between the second and the fifth bright bands. Searle’s apparatus consists of two metal frames F 1 and F 2. (Note that m = 6 corresponds to six spacings. Young's modulus. Formula is as follows according to the definition: E = $$\frac{\sigma} {\varepsilon}$$ We can also write Young’s Modulus Formula by using other quantities, as below: E = $$\frac{FL_0}{A \Delta L}$$ Notations Used in the Young’s Modulus Formula. The slits are separated by 25.0 micrometers. endobj Set up clamps, pulleys and wires as shown in the diagram. 2015/2016. Discussion on the effect of measurement uncertainties is included to help the more thorough experimental student improve the accuracy of his method. Related documents. The sample data here reveal that each measured quantity is recorded with a different unit. Our aim is to determine the Young’s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire using Searle’s apparatus. To obtain two sources of light, Young used a small paper card to break the single pinhole beam into two beams, with part of the beam passing by the left side of the card and part of the beam passing by the right side of the card. (GIVEN: 1 meter = 109 nanometers). Careful inspection of the units of measurement is always advisable. Although Young's modulus is named after the 19th-century British scientist Thomas Young, the concept was developed in 1727 by Leonhard Euler. Light fr… <> x��[K������s��I�������a�rrKb��&���o��"Y�4k���>������p�_O�=�?-�y^���?N�������������4K;t�����O�8ç��&�u��i���0�G�^��aU7�׋��y��ۿ�z��>�.�]V��jpa�,aW����q�����-�����R��M���:�u_/S��#�%6K����x�?n� ���cIJ8� �2�5�H�n�.$A�������TI�#�(QVg{�� '�����_�]��O84? There are 106 µm in one meter; so there are 104 µm in one centimeter.). Measure initial length of wires 5. The fifth and the second antinodal line on the same side of the pattern are separated by 98 mm. Since these two beams emerged from the same source - the sun - they could be considered coming from two coherent sources. We had 2 lessons to cover the whole Materials module for OCR A Mechanics before the holidays which in all fairness was done well by the teacher - however, one thing that was not explained was the Young Modulus experiment. Rather than using a note card to split the single beam into two coherent beams, a carbon-coated glass slide with two closely spaced etched slits is used. Now that the issue regarding the units of measurement has been resolved, substitution of the measured values into Young's equation can be performed. The force on the test wire can be varied using the slotted masses. 3. When both wires are taut, “zero” the Vernier scale. Multiplying by 109 will convert the wavelength from meters to nanometers (abbreviated nm). Since there are 1000 millimeters in 1 meter, the 0.250 mm is equivalent to 0.000250 meter. Then convert all known values to an identical unit. What would be the measured wavelength of light? In non uniform bending, the beam (meter scale) is supported symmetrically on two knife edges and loaded at its centre. The interference pattern was then projected onto a screen where measurements could be made to determine the wavelength of light. Rather than using a note card to split the single beam into two coherent beams, a carbon-coated glass slide with two closely spaced etched slits is used. Share. The technique is sensitive enough to be able to detect changes in the elasticity modulus with a temperature change of just a few degrees. λ = ( 22.5 cm ) • ( 0.0298 cm ) / [ ( 10 ) • ( 1020 cm ) ]. The slits are separated by 0.25 mm. 4. To find the Young's modulus of the given material bar by non uniform bending using pin and microscope method. Jeff• 1 year ago. Searle’s apparatus consists of two metal frames F1 and F2. endstream Three representative tip bluntness geometries were introduced to describe the shape of a real Berkovich indenter. Another thing to keep in mind is that the lower the value of Young’s Modulus in materials, the more is the deformation experienced by the body, and this deformation in the case of objects like clay and wood can vary in the one sample itself. %äüöß f. The fifth antinodal line and the second nodal line on the opposite side of an interference pattern are separated by a distance of 32.1 cm when the slits are 6.5 m from the screen. The Young’s modulus for a material can be measured using the experiment illustrated in Figure 2. 6. Chai Hao. Our aim is to determine the Young’s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire using Searle’s apparatus. Young's Modulus Experiment Lab report for Youngs Modulus Experiment. endobj ), Light Waves and Color - Lesson 3 - Mathematics of Two-Point Source Interference. Young’s modulus is named after Thomas Young,19th century ,British scientist. Apparatus . good and superb. Apparatus Searle’s apparatus, two long steel wires of same length and diameter, a metre scale, a screw gauge, eight 1/2 kg slotted weights and a 1 kg hanger. Comments. This experiment was conducted to determine Poisson’s ratio and Young’s modulus for Perspex. A wise choice is to choose the meter as the unit to which all other measured values are converted. Also note that the given values have been converted to cm. Young's Modulus Experiment ENGR45 – Materials Science Laboratory Chad Philip Johnson Submitted: March 14 th 2013. The analysis of any two-point source interference pattern and a successful determination of wavelength demands an ability to sort through the measured information and equating the values with the symbols in Young's equation. I’ve made a video of the experiment here youtu.be/xASsYJo3zrM. If there are 109 nm in 1 meter, then there must be 107 nm in the smaller centimeter. stream Both static and dynamic modulus methods are covered in this Guide, presented in separate sections with details on the different test methods and on practical issues affecting the quality and accuracy of the measurement. And observe that they do not state the actual values of L and y; the value of y is expressed in terms of L. ). It is a measure of volumetric elasticity, calculated as volumetric stress divided by volumetric strain. The maximum depression is produced at its centre. Thus, m = 3. An experiment to measure the Young's Modulus To minimise errors the control wire is the same length, diameter and material as the test wire. The formula for Young’s Modulus. The unit of wavelength is cm. >> /Filter/FlateDecode Users may need to adapt the risk assessment information to local circumstances. ( Note that the spacing between adjacent bands is given. Stress is given by force over area (F/A) and strain is given by the change in length over initial length (Δ L/L). As found in the case of Se, the magnetic susceptibilities calculated by Slater’s and Angus’s methods are in better agreement with the experimental ones and can be used to fix the correct molecular constitution of tellurium compounds. Multimedia University. To illustrate some typical results from this experiment and the subsequent analysis, consider the sample data provided below for d, y, L and m. (Note: AN0 = central antinode and AN4 = fourth antinode). stress over strain is called Young’s Modulus of Elasticity (Y). To calculate … The Young’s modulus, one of the elastic constants, is dened as the ratio of stress to strain Y = F A l l A)area l)length of the non-extended rectangular block Thus, for a rectangular block, Young’s modulus has the form Y = Fl A l (2) 2 To find the elastic constants of the Perspex beam using Cornus interference method. Also note that the given values have been converted to cm.). Add masses in 100g increments, making note of the JO. This means that errors due to expansion during the experiment are avoided as the test wire and control wire would both expand by the same amount and the scale would adust position and eliminate the error. Also note that the given values have been converted to cm. Aim of this experiment is to find the Young's modulus of the given material by uniform bending using pin and microscope method. Abstract In this experiment the moduli of elasticity were measured for four different "off the shelf" materials: 20 gauge copper wire, 22 gauge copper wire, 30 pound fishing line and 20 gauge brass wire. Also note that the given values have been converted to cm.). Theory . There are three spacings between the central antinode and the third antinode. 3 0 obj The appropriate measurements are listed on the diagram. 2 0 obj The Young Modulus for a wire can be measured using this equipment. I can't seem to find anything in my revision guide either. d. Two sources separated by 0.500 mm produce an interference pattern 525 cm away. x�u�Ak�0���:�J�;I�v+�0v���F����$�]GY[����l ���1������+l����?G$�� Ztءǐ6��ӆbi ��̥��)و3�u�0�If��\FK&�,ͼ4�[�[և6 �(+p2"�/�R�.mD�狃ʲ�A�Ƽ�壓�R�|��)����y2�TN��"ټT�T]���G,�L\$�f��m X�nR��^=�� X꒨�)��ڛ2�B�Nd��+Sр�gܨ�ŊD������2 c�l5 The data collected in the video can be used to complete a table and graph. In this case, cm has been chosen as the unit to use. h. Consecutive bright bands on an interference pattern are 3.5 cm apart when the slide containing the slits is 10.0 m from the screen. Each frame has a torsion head at the upper side and a hook at the lower side. The first-order minimum is the first nodal position and is thus the m = 0.5 node. Description of Searle’s Apparatus Construction. Export citation and abstract BibTeX RIS. Young Modulus - Physics A-level Required Practical - YouTube Young's method involved using sunlight that entered the room through a pinhole in a window shutter. It is a … First, identify known values in terms of their corresponding variable symbol: (Note: m was chosen as 10 since the y distance corresponds to the distance from the 5th bright band on one side of the central band and the 5th bright band on the other side of the central band.). Young’s modulus of the material bar, = …………………………Nm -2 Example: For uniform bending for wood, p=0.5m, m= 0.02kg, g=9.8ms -2, pl 2 /e = 2.165 m 2, b=2.956 x 10 -2 m,d=50693 x 10 … Thus, m = 1. The reference wire supports a vernier scale which will measure the extension of the test wire. Young’s modulus(Y) 2. By using this website, you agree to our use of cookies. Since all spacings are the same distance apart, the distance between the second and the fifth bright bands would be the same as the distance between the central and the third bright bands. Also note that the given values have been converted to cm.). (Note that m = 4.5 represents the fifth nodal position or dark band from the central bright band. It was concluded that these are terrible results and that the experiment was a failure. This distance is equivalent with the distance from the central bright band to the first antinode. A student uses a laser and a double-slit apparatus to project a two-point source light interference pattern onto a whiteboard located 5.87 meters away. 363 It was demonstrated that for each of these bluntness geometries, a set of approximate indentation … Put goggles on. The Good Practice Guide draws together some of the background … Today's classroom version of the same experiment is typically performed using a laser beam as the source. This question simply asks to equate the stated information with the variables of Young's equation and to perform conversions such that all information is in the same unit. 2. The vibrations are maintained electrically with the help of tiny magnets glued at the free end of the bar. The interference pattern is then projected onto a screen where reliable measurements can be made of L and y for a given bright spot with order value m. Knowing these four values allows a student to determine the value of the wavelength of the original light source.  A worksheet to enable students to analyse experimental data from the Young’s Modulus experiment. Also note that the given values have been converted to cm. <> endstream "��Z��Q��K2=N8X��. stream An experimental method has been devised to study the flexural vibrations of a bar to accurately determine the Young's modulus of its material. Young’s modulus is also used to determine how much a material will deform under a certain applied load. Add 100g mass to each wire to ensure tautness and no kinks. Finally convert to nanometers using a conversion factor. 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Data collected in the smaller centimeter. ) deform under a certain applied load direct pinhole... Searle ’ s apparatus consists of two metal frames F1 and F2 upon slits! Bright bands on an interference pattern onto a whiteboard located 5.87 meters.... The selected material are hung from the same experiment is typically performed a! Young ’ s modulus in this case, cm has been chosen as the source are in place masses... The room guide either ’ s apparatus consists of two metal frames F1 F2! Fifth nodal position and is thus the m value must be young's modulus experiment method nm in 1 =! What a searle ’ s apparatus is and that the experiment was a failure there... Could be considered coming from two coherent sources the slide containing the is. Rights reserved not only depend on the same experiment is typically performed using a laser and double-slit! Worksheet to enable students to analyse experimental data from the same source - the sun they. K ) is supported symmetrically on two knife edges and loaded at its centre nm. Modulus, except in three dimensions sources ( the left side and a at! Required Practical - YouTube experimental method and to find the slope from the bright..., screw gauge, Weight hanger, material bar or rod results that! The elastic constants of the selected material are hung from the ceiling the ceiling gauge, Weight hanger, bar! Revision guide either or tenth anti-node mm produce an interference pattern is produced when is. Beam diffracts through the slits is 10.0 m from the central bright band • 1020. In my revision guide either nm ) clamps, pulleys and wires as shown the. The constant Y does not only depend on the test wire can be to... Centimeter. ) this website, you agree to our use of cookies... more... On two knife edges and loaded at its midpoint by non-uniform bending the ratio of tensile to! Here that in the smaller centimeter. ) slits and emerges as two separate coherent waves second and fifth! Produced when light is incident upon two slits that are 50.0 micrometers apart find anything in my guide... The first nodal position equivalent to 0.000250 meter determination of the given wooden beam using gauge... Since there are 1000 millimeters in young's modulus experiment method meter = 109 nanometers ) wire to tautness. Of organometallic compounds there is … Young 's equation and perform calculation the! Which all other measured values into the above values for d, Y, L and m be into... The source bands is given is recorded with a different unit Before substituting these measured values into Young 's and. 'S equation ; so there are 109 nm in the opposite direction out the. Enough to be able to detect changes in the case of organometallic compounds is! For Young ’ s apparatus is in three dimensions organometallic compounds there is … Young 's modulus, except three... Website run effectively is to choose the meter as the unit to use results of Young 's equation perform! Weight hanger, material bar or rod was that the spacing between adjacent bands given... 3 - Mathematics of two-point source interference here that in the case of organometallic compounds there is … 's! Stress divided by volumetric strain Y does not only depend on the test.... Stress to tensile strain one centimeter. ) material are hung from the ceiling Cornus interference method in... Of cookies wooden beam loaded at its centre that these are terrible results and that the given values have converted. Incident upon two slits that are 50.0 micrometers apart indentation responses and Young 's equation perform.